CSS Variables

CSS variables, also known as custom properties, are a powerful tool that has revolutionized the way we manage styles in web development. They offer a simple and efficient way to store and reuse values throughout your stylesheets, leading to cleaner, more maintainable code and a more dynamic design experience.

  • Reduced Repetition: Eliminate the need to repeat the same color, font size, or other property values across multiple CSS rules. Define a variable once and use it wherever needed, significantly reducing code size and redundancy.
  • Improved Maintainability: Updating a single variable automatically updates all elements referencing it, making it easier to adjust your design theme or apply global changes.
  • Dynamic Styling: Change variable values based on specific conditions like media queries or JavaScript interactions, allowing for dynamic and responsive design elements.
  • Theming and Customization: Easily create different themes or color palettes by modifying a few variables, making it ideal for user preferences or branding changes.
  1. Define the Variable: Use the -- prefix followed by a descriptive name to define a variable. For example:


:root {
  --primary-color: #007bff;
  --font-size: 16px;
  1. Access the Variable: Use the var() function to reference the variable within any CSS property:


body {
  color: var(--primary-color);
  font-size: var(--font-size);

Advanced Features of CSS Variables:

  • Inheritance: Variables defined on parent elements are inherited by their child elements unless overridden by a local variable definition.
  • Cascading: Variables follow the standard CSS cascade rules, meaning the most specific declaration takes precedence.
  • Scope: Variables are typically dynamically scoped, meaning their value can change based on the element’s context.
  • JavaScript Interaction: You can read and manipulate variable values using JavaScript, enabling dynamic styling based on user interactions or data.

In Conclusion:

CSS variables are a valuable addition to the web developer’s toolkit. They offer a powerful and flexible way to manage styles, leading to cleaner, more maintainable code and dynamic design possibilities. By embracing CSS variables, you can streamline your workflow, create more consistent and adaptable styles, and ultimately, build better websites.